How to prevent respiratory infections during the school season
Winter and spring are the seasons when influenza, chickenpox, measles, mumps, meningitis, tuberculosis and other respiratory infectious diseases are in high incidence. At present, most regions in China are at the peak of seasonal influenza.
In order to promote the prevention and control of infectious diseases in schools around the start of the spring semester, effectively prevent and control the occurrence and spread of respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza in schools, and protect students' health. Early warning notice for prevention and control of infectious diseases.
Let's learn how to prevent respiratory infections in winter and spring!
流感 Prevent flu
Influenza (referred to as flu)
An acute respiratory infection caused by influenza virus. Influenza has the characteristics of short incubation period, strong contagion, and rapid spread. Collective units such as schools and childcare institutions are prone to outbreaks.
The temperature in March is still low, and it is cold and warm, and the temperature difference is large. These are all suitable for the survival of influenza viruses, so we must still pay attention to prevent influenza.
Maintaining good personal hygiene is an important means of preventing respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza. The main measures include:
1. Wash your hands frequently. Use soap or hand sanitizer and wash your hands with running water. Do not wipe your hands with dirty towels. Wash hands immediately after touching respiratory secretions (such as after sneezing).
2. Maintain good respiratory hygiene habits. When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or towel. Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth with your hands.
3. Enhance physical fitness and immunity, balanced diet, regular exercise, regular work and rest, and avoid excessive fatigue.
开窗通风 数次，保持室内空气新鲜。 4. Keep the environment clean and ventilated, open the window several times a day , and keep the indoor air fresh.
5. Minimize activities in crowded places and avoid contact with patients with respiratory infections.
6. If you have symptoms of respiratory infection such as cough, runny nose, fever, etc., you should rest at home and seek medical treatment as soon as possible.
Remind families with children
1. When adults at home are infected with influenza, avoid close contact with children.
2. When there are two or more children in the family, if one of them is infected with influenza, a relatively fixed family member should take care of the child as much as possible and pay attention to strengthening personal protection. Masks should be worn when in close contact with other patients; other family members should minimize the chance of contact with children with influenza, especially children who are not infected with influenza, minimize contact with children, and do good personal hygiene.
再次强调 ，不论成人还是儿童， 接种流感疫苗 是预防流感的最有效措施。 Finally , it was emphasized again that influenza vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent influenza for both adults and children . It is recommended to get influenza vaccine every September to November. The elderly, especially those with underlying diseases (such as hypertension, diabetes, etc.) can also be vaccinated against senile pneumonia.
Prevention of chicken pox
The incubation period of chickenpox is usually 1 to 2 weeks. At first, symptoms such as fever and general discomfort will appear. The first symptom after a child's illness is a rash.1
Chickenpox has a characteristic rash. First, there is a characteristic red spotted rash, which later turns into pimples. It develops into a blister with intense itching. The rash started to dry and crust after 3 or 4 days. At the same site, rashes, blisters, and scabs may coexist.
Children with systemic symptoms and rashes are mild, adults and infants are more ill, rashes are more dense, and they are prone to varicella pneumonia. Those with low immune function are prone to form disseminated chickenpox.
Varicella is a self-limiting disease. If there are no complications, it will heal in about 10 days and the prognosis is generally good. After infection, permanent immunity to varicella virus can be obtained.
Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control chickenpox. Numerous epidemiological studies have confirmed the safety and immune effect of chickenpox vaccine.
Varicella vaccine is a second-class vaccine in Zhejiang Province and is voluntarily given at its own expense.
(I) Recommended objects: Children and adolescents over 1 year old.
(2) Other recommended targets: key populations such as medical staff, school teachers, etc .; high-risk populations such as susceptible persons in households who are in close contact with chickenpox patients (age <40 years, no history of chickenpox)
The vaccine should be given throughout the year, but it is not recommended for children who have been infected with the chickenpox-zoster virus.
Prevent measles, tuberculosis, etc.
March to May is the traditional high incidence period of measles, the rapid spread of measles virus, schools, migrant workers' settlements and other crowded places should pay attention to prevention.
In addition, when shopping malls, cinemas, hospitals, and other places where people are highly mobile, you can wear a mask and take appropriate protection, especially when accompanying patients to the clinic or infusion, you must also do a good job of protection to minimize the length of stay in the hospital .
Families with babies, please do routine measles vaccination according to the vaccination notice.
Tuberculosis is also one of the common respiratory infectious diseases in spring. It is mainly transmitted through droplets or sputum produced by coughing, sneezing, talking aloud, etc.
Tuberculosis mainly manifests as cough, sputum, blood in sputum, low fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. If you have cough or sputum for more than 2 weeks, you should go to the hospital to check for tuberculosis in time.
When living, studying and working in a collective environment, care should be taken to keep indoor windows open and ventilated, and ventilate; do not spit, cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing; go to public places with crowded people and poor air circulation Wear a mask for protection; reasonable nutrition, strengthen outdoor exercise, and enhance physical fitness.
Source: Zhejiang Health Education, Yueqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention